Sain baina uu? It is an interesting concept. Although I don't think you will find much better and cost effective insulation
for the gers than... the existing felts made in Mongolia. Felts do not only insulate the ger, but adds to it strength and allows it to breathe. The way it is built, it is difficult to change it with anything else without changing the ger's properties.
In the capital people are too poor to make new layers as they would do on the country side. But adding a few layers would be best. Possibly adding house wrap could help while not compromising the breathing. Adding carpets and curtains (wall hangings) on the inside perimeter will block a layer of air and add insulation.
More than anything, the heat source has to be improved. There has been already a few initiatives to improve the traditional stoves that are usually designed for animal manure. You can find some good (Mongolian made) versions working with coal at Naarantuul, but often too expensive for people living in the ger districts. In my opinion, improving pollution will go through sponsoring those people with these existing solutions.
In the Slenge province they produce bricks from saw dust and it seems to offer much better and cleaner properties than coal.
Myself and my colleague Chuck (who is finishing one year of living in a ger in the Northern District) are available for any question.
Warm regards and Happy Tsagaan Sar (Mongolian New Year) :-)